Familiarity with bioinformatics and its widely used words and expressions

نوع مقاله : لغات تخصصی


دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد ژنتیک و اصلاح نژاد دام، گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران


Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary science that uses a combination of statistics, mathematics, and computer science to collecting, editing, recovery, data mining, and analyze biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids and proteins. Bioinformatics has four main general parts, which are Genomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics. Genomics involves the study of the genome of individuals; That is, all studies, whether structural or functional, combine the two directly on DNA. Structural studies mean the detection of mutations or measurements of chromosome length and studies such as those of the DNA molecule itself. But in functional studies, the goal is to study the physiological function of the gene. In the transcriptomics section, the transcriptome or DNA-transcribed product, in other words, all the DNA-generated RNAs are studied. But because RNA has a very short half-life, it first converts it into a more stable molecule called cDNA (cDNA library) and then studies it. In this section, the main purpose of the study is to measure gene expression, but other actions such as identifying mutations as well as identifying new genes that were previously unknown can be performed with regard to recent advances in the bioinformatics basin. In the proteomics section, the proteome is the case for all the proteins produced by the expression of DNA genes, and in the metabolomics section for all the physiological functions that result from the expression of DNA genes, like all chemical reactions that take place in the body. The study is included.